Top 6 New Programming Languages Born in the Last Decade

Anna Khrupa by Anna Khrupa on February 13, 2020

Top 6 New Programming Languages Born in the Last Decade
Reading Time: 6 minutes

When it comes to programming languages, progress does not stand still. While the most influential ones like Python, C, Java were created a long time ago, new valuable coding languages appear all the time. In many use cases, it is the new programming languages that are driving innovations and help build truly amazing software. Let’s look at the most promising ones that were born in the last decade.

What is Rust programming language?

Rust is a system programming language, created by Mozilla, which was announced in 2010. Rust is positioned as an incredibly fast language, that prevents memory violations and guarantees thread safety. Rust is syntactically similar to C ++ and in terms of speed, it can be compared to C or C ++. This means that the applications written in Rust can be just as fast as those written in C or C ++ and faster than those written in other dynamic languages. The programming language allows a high level of abstraction through the connection of different programming paradigms and relies on a typing system common for functional languages ​​instead of a garbage collector for memory management. Therefore, Rust programming language is often chosen for projects where performance is a matter of critical importance. In particular, the language can be used for CLI tools and network services.

More and more companies, including well-known brands, use Rust for different facets of their work. For example, Amazon has chosen Rust to create different tools, Dropbox uses the language in front-end and backend development, with the help of Rust Facebook builds solutions for source control, Red Hat creates a new storage system and Microsoft builds its Azure IoT work. Rust is not only one of the most popular programming language, but also one of the most loved ones. According to the latest Stack Overflow survey, 73% of developers say they want to continue working with Rust in the future.

What is Dart programming language?

Dart is an object-oriented, open-source programming language created by Google in 2011. Dart was conceived as an alternative to JavaScript and help solve some problems of the long-established language of the web. Dart is primarily aimed at mobile devices and the web, preferably in conjunction with the cross-platform framework Flutter, which is also created by Google. At the end of 2019, the developers of Dart announced its new version – Dart 2.6 with dart2native, an extension of its compiler set. This version offers a comprehensive compiler set for Flutter apps, and dart2native is intended to open up further platforms for developers with independent executable programs that contain precompiled machine code.

According to the latest GitHub’s Octoverse report, both Dart and Flutter are becoming more and more popular in the developer community. The survey reveals that Dart tops the list of the fastest-growing programming languages on GitHub in 2019, while Flutter ranks 3rd in the repositories with the most contributions and 2nd in the repositories with the fastest-growing contributor base.

What is Kotlin programming language?

Kotlin is a cross-platform, statically typed programming language, developed by JetBrains and unveiled in 2011. The language was originally developed for the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). This means that a program written in Kotlin is translated into a bytecode that can be read by the JVM. Since the code can be translated into JavaScript, the programming language is also suitable for the web. The first stable version of Kotlin has been available since 2016, and in spring 2017 Google declared Kotlin to be the main language for programming Android apps. Since then, numerous developers have started to use Kotlin instead of Java. It really makes sense as Kotlin has many advantages of Kotlin over Java. It is safer, more concise, speeds up the development tasks as well as helps reduce bugs in the code. Kotlin, which is a really great language for building Android apps, allows designing apps for iOS as well. This, in turn, makes it possible to create software for Android and Apple’s mobile devices in one go.

With all the benefits Kotlin brings, it is no surprise that the popularity of the language keeps growing. According to Stack Overflow, Kotlin was the fourth most loved as well as one of the fastest-growing programming languages of the last year, while PyPl ranked it as the 12th most popular programming language in 2019 which is four steps higher compared to the year before. Many popular brands such as Coursera, Netflix, Uber, Trello, Evernote, and Pinterest are using Kotlin in their work.

What is TypeScript programming language?

TypeScript is an open-source programming language developed by tech giant Microsoft, first released in 2012. TypeScript is a superset of JavaScript programming language which means that TypeScript compiles to JS and can run on any JavaScript-enabled browser and on any web server. The TypeScript programming language was built with the idea of building large apps. What makes working with this programming language tempting is that TypeScript helps avoid bugs developers often encounter when writing in JS. Unlike with JavaScript, where you learn about errors only when you run the code, TypeScript allows you to report the bugs earlier and use the type system to create the code faster. What is interesting about TypeScript is that its static type system is optional. If you want, you can write dynamically, or you can mix both types of code. The programming language includes different useful tools such as auto-completion, that improves the effectiveness of developers’ work and makes the programming process easier.

The analysts note that TypeScript’s popularity is constantly growing. According to the RedMonk team who publishes the programming languages ranking in six-month intervals, TypeScript “capped off one of the most remarkable growth stories” they have ever seen. In the latest ranking from June 2019 the programming language reached the top ten for the first time after surging from 16 to 12 in the previous ranking. Many big companies, including Avanade and Accenture, use Typescript to implement their ambitious projects, while tech giant Google chose the language to create its well-known framework Angular2+.

What is Hack programming language?

Facebook, one of the largest users of PHP, decided that there is also room for a better version of it and created the alternative. This is how Hack, the programming language for HipHop Virtual Machine (HHVM), came to life in 2014. Hack, which allows developers to use both dynamic and static typing, is a programming language fully compatible with its predecessor PHP. This means that all existing PHP projects can be easily transferred to Hack; incremental new features can then be implemented in the new language or old ones can be rewritten. It should be mentioned that Hack does not support some “deprecated” features of PHP while it includes a lot of features that PHP doesn’t have. According to one of the Hack’s creators Bryan O’Sullivan, with Hack, you can get “both safety and speed”. Sounds plausible as, on the one hand, the programming language allows developers to write the code with fewer flaws and understand it better while revisiting, on the other hand, it provides these advantages without slowing down the engineers’ work.

Looking for developers?

Although you can’t find Hack among the top programming languages today and some companies (e.g. WordPress and Symfony) decided to forego compatibility with HHVM it still has a fair chance of success. Generally much depends on the support of its creator, Facebook and here is why the future of Hack looks promising. As announced at the end of 2018, over the next 2-3 years, the language should become a consistent, statically typed language that exhibits the development speed and user-friendliness of a dynamically typed language. Also, according to the Facebook’s statement, the company was planning to increase its investments in Hack/HHVM Open Source to support the existing users as well as to build a large community around the project.

What is Swift programming language?

Swift is an open-source general-purpose programming language created by Apple in 2014. It’s often called the successor of Objective-C which was the standard for programming apps for macOS or iOS earlier. However, the language is it is not limited to the Apple ecosystem and you can use Swift to create apps for Linux too. Swift has a strong, static typing and builds on a syntax reduced to the essentials for optimal readability. While Swift is based on Objective-C, it is more comfortable and easy to use. The variables in Swift are type-safe, and the syntax is dramatically simplified. One of the main goals of the Swift creators was to provide beginners with comfortable entry to programming. With this aim, Apple even created its own learning app “Swift Playgrounds” which conveys the basics of the language in a simple and playful manner.

Because of the benefits Swift brings, in particular the high speed of the apps created, it attracted a lot of attention from the developers. For now Swift maintains the 9th place both in the PYPL ranking and the TIOBE Index as well as ranks 6th among most loved programming languages in the latest Stack Overflow list. It looks like the popularity of the programming language will keep growing as Apple has recently released its new version with many significant improvements. In addition to the stable status now reached for the Swift ABI, a new data type for error handling and an expansion of exclusive memory access are among the new features of Swift 5.0.

 

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